Diseases & Conditions (A-Z)



























X Syndrome (Metabolic Syndrome)

What is X Syndrome (Metabolic Syndrome)?
Metabolic syndrome is a group of five risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that occur together, increase your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.
Metabolic syndrome is quite common.
If you have metabolic syndrome or any of its components, aggressive lifestyle changes can delay or even prevent the development of serious health problems.

What are the causes and risk factors of X Syndrome (Metabolic Syndrome)?
Certain medical conditions, genetics and the environment both play important roles in the development of the metabolic syndrome.
The risk factors for metabolic syndrome are related to obesity. The two most important risk factors are defined by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute as:
Central obesity, or excess fat around the middle and upper parts of the body
Insulin resistance, which makes it difficult for the body to use sugar.

There are other factors that can increase your risk for metabolic syndrome. These include:
Family history of metabolic syndrome
Not getting enough exercise
Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome

What are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is a condition that in general, has no symptoms.
although a large waist circumference is a visible sign. If your blood sugar is very high, you might have signs and symptoms of diabetes — including increased thirst and urination, fatigue, and blurred vision.
Metabolic syndrome is worth caring about because it is significant risk factor for the development of both type 2 diabetes and heart disease, two of the most common and important chronic diseases today.

How is metabolic syndrome diagnosed?
To diagnose metabolic syndrome, your doctor will need to perform several different tests. The results of these tests will be used to look for three or more signs of the disorder. Your doctor may check one or more of the following:
Large waist circumference
A waistline that measures at least 35 inches (89 centimeters) for women and 40 inches (102 centimeters) for men
High triglyceride level
150 milligrams per deciliter,(mg/dL), or 1.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher of this type of fat found in blood
Reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
Less than 40 mg/dL (1.04 mmol/L) in men or less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) in women of this "good" cholesterol
Increased blood pressure
130/85 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or higher
Elevated fasting blood sugar — 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) or higher

Abnormalities noted on three or more of these tests will indicate the presence of metabolic syndrome.

What is the treatment for metabolic syndrome?
If you are diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the major goals are to treat both the underlying cause of the syndrome, to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, and also to treat the cardiovascular risk factors if they persist. As has been discussed, a majority of people with metabolic syndrome are overweight and live a sedentary lifestyle.
Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes that may include losing between 7 and 10 percent of your current weight and getting at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense exercise five to seven days a week. They may also suggest that you quit smoking.

Your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce your blood pressure, cholesterol, and/or blood sugar. They may also prescribe low-dose aspirin to help reduce your risk of stroke and heart attack.

What is the role of diet in treatment of metabolic syndrome?
Many researchers believe that mediterranean diet good. Mediterranean diet is one that is rich in "good" fats (olive oil) and contains a reasonable amount of carbohydrates and proteins (such as from fish and chicken).

The Mediterranean diet is palatable and easily sustained. In addition, recent studies have shown that when compared to a low fat diet, people on the Mediterranean diet have a greater decrease in body weight, and also had greater improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other markers of heart disease -- all of which are important in evaluating and treating metabolic syndrome.

Other nutritional plans that may be recommended for people with metabolic syndrome include the  American Dietary Association (ADA) diet and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.

What are the complications of metabolic syndrome?
The complications that may result from metabolic syndrome are frequently serious and long-term (chronic). They include:

Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis)
Diabetes - If diabetes develops, you may be at risk for additional health complications, including eye damage (retinopathy), nerve damage (neuropathy), kidney disease, amputation of limbs.
Heart attack
Kidney disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Peripheral artery disease
Cardiovascular disease

Medicines & Drugs (A-Z)