Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease (Also known as JCD or Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease)
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is an incurable, and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease. CJD is at times called the human form of mad cow disease which is medically known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or BSE.
CJD is caused by a transmissible agent called a prion. Prions are misfolded proteins that replicate by converting their properly folded counterparts, in their host, to the same misfolded structure that they possess. CJD causes the brain tissue to degenerate rapidly, and as the disease destroys the brain, the brain develops tiny holes and its appearance changes to resemble that of a kitchen sponge when viewed under the microscope.
Rapid mental deterioration will spiral within months and worsen over time, leading to coma in most cases. The disease will invariably lead to death within one or two years, with a 1-year survival rate of just 10%. Direct causes of death include heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and other infections.