A hematoma is a collection of blood outside of a blood vessel. There are several types of hematomas and they are often described based on their location.
Intramuscular haematoma a collection of blood within a muscle. In sport this is usually the result of direct trauma, e.g. a direct blow to thigh or calf in contact sports or muscle tears in non-contact sports. Treatment is aimed at limitation of bleeding (rest, ice, compression and elevation). The collection of blood causes pain, related to either limitation of movement or the increase in pressure in the tissues. If local pressure compromises the circulation, surgery is required to relieve it and to prevent tissue necrosis by draining the haematoma.
Some causes of hematomas are as pelvic bone fractures, fingernail injuries (subungual), bumps, passing blood clots, blood clot in the leg (DVT), blood cancers, and excessive alcohol use.
Symptoms of hematomas depend upon their location and whether adjacent structures are affected by the inflammation and swelling associated with the bleeding.
Treatment of a hematoma depends upon which organ or body tissue is affected.
Superficial hematomas of the skin and soft tissue, such as muscle, may be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Heat may also be considered.