Heart Murmur : Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis
Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
There are two types of murmurs. A functional murmur or "physiologic murmur" is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart. Other types of murmurs are due to structural defects in the heart itself. Functional murmurs are benign (an "innocent murmur").
Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. Such murmurs, known as pathologic murmurs, should be evaluated by an expert.
Heart murmurs are most frequently categorized by timing, into systolic heart murmurs and diastolic heart murmurs, differing in the part of the heartbeat on which they can be heard. However, continuous murmurs cannot be directly placed into either category.