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Campomelic Dysplasia



Campomelic dysplasia (CMD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and many other skeletal and extraskeletal features. It is frequently lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency, but the severity of the disease is variable, and some patients survive into adulthood. The name is derived from the Greek roots campo (or campto), meaning bent, and melia, meaning limb. An unusual aspect of the disease is that up to two-thirds of affected 46,XY genotypic males display a range of Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) and genital ambiguities or may even develop as normal phenotypic females as in complete 46 XY sex reversal. An atypical form of the disease with absence of bowed limbs is called, prosaically, acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD) and is found in about 10% of patients, particularly those surviving the neonatal period.

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