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Hematuria (Blood in urine) : Diagnosis, Risk factors, Treatment


Symptoms
Complications
Prevention
Images

Diagnosis of Hematuria

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and carry out a physical examination to help determine the cause of the blood in your urine. For men, this may include a rectal examination and women may have a vaginal examination.
To find a cause for urinary bleeding, the following tests and exams play a key role:

Physical exam, which includes a discussion of your medical history.

Urine tests. Even if your bleeding was first discovered through urine testing (urinalysis), you're likely to have another test to see if your urine still contains red blood cells. Urinalysis can also check for urinary tract infection or the presence of minerals that cause kidney stones.

Imaging tests. Often, an imaging test is required to find the cause of hematuria. Your doctor might recommend a computerized tomography (CT) scan, which uses radiation and a powerful computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of the body; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses a magnetic field and radio waves instead of X-rays to produce images; or an ultrasound exam. Ultrasound uses a combination of high-frequency sound waves and computer processing to produce images of your kidneys and bladder.

Cystoscopy. In this procedure, your doctor threads a narrow tube fitted with a tiny camera into your bladder to closely examine both the bladder and urethra for signs of disease.
Sometimes, the cause of urinary bleeding may not be found. In that case, your doctor may recommend regular follow-up tests, especially if you have risk factors for bladder cancer, such as smoking, exposure to environmental toxins or a history of radiation therapy.


Risk factors for Hematuria

Factors that make this more likely include:
Age. Many men older than 50 have occasional hematuria due to an enlarged prostate gland.

Your sex. More than half of all women will have a urinary tract infection at least once in their lives, possibly with some urinary bleeding. Younger men are more likely to have kidney stones or Alport syndrome, a form of hereditary nephritis that can cause blood in the urine.

Kidney infection. Kidney inflammation after a viral or bacterial infection (post-infectious glomerulonephritis) is one of the leading causes of visible urinary blood in children.

Family history. You may be more prone to urinary bleeding if you have a family history of kidney disease or kidney stones.

Certain medications. Aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain relievers and antibiotics such as penicillin are known to increase the risk of urinary bleeding.

Strenuous exercise. Long-distance runners are especially prone to exercise-induced urinary bleeding. In fact, the condition is sometimes called jogger's hematuria. But anyone who works out strenuously can develop symptoms.

Treatment  of Hematuria

Treatments for hematuria vary widely and depend on the reason for the bleeding. It is important to note that quite often no cause is found for the hematuria. If the underlying condition isn't serious, no treatment is necessary.

If there is infection treatment might include taking antibiotics to clear a urinary tract infection, trying a prescription medication to shrink an enlarged prostate, or shock wave therapy to break up bladder or kidney stones.


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Prevention
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