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Blood In Semen (Haematospermia) : Definition, Causes, Symptoms


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Definition of Haematospermia
Semen consists of sperm and fluids released by the prostate and other glands. The fluids, also called ejaculate, join the sperm as they pass through a series of tubes to the urethra for ejaculation.
The presence of blood in the ejaculate is called haematospermia. It is usually a painless, benign, isolated, self-limiting symptom.
Blood in semen can be frightening, but the cause of this uncommon condition is usually benign. Typically, blood in semen goes away on its own. Hematospermia is not always noticed; therefore, it is difficult to make estimates of its incidence.

Causes of Haematospermia
Blood in semen can be caused by many conditions affecting the male genitourinary system. A number of things can break blood vessels along this route or along the urinary route to the urethra. Broken vessels then leak blood into the semen, urine or both.
Areas affected may include the bladder, urethra, the testicles, the tubes that distribute semen from the testicles (known as the seminal vesicles), the epididymis (a segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature, and transport sperm), and the prostate gland.
Most often, no cause can be found for blood in semen. In some cases, particularly among men under age 40, infection is a possible cause. Infection is usually accompanied by other signs and symptoms, such as painful urination.
Possible causes of blood in semen:
  1. Brachytherapy
  2. Chlamydia trachomatis
  3. Epididymitis
  4. Excessive sexual activity or masturbation
  5. External beam radiation for prostate cancer
  6. Genital herpes
  7. Forgotten (retained) tampon
  8. Hemophilia
  9. Interrupted sex
  10. Orchitis
  11. Prolonged sexual abstinence
  12. Prostate biopsy
  13. Prostate cancer
  14. Prostatitis
  15. Testicular trauma
  16. Vasectomy

Symptoms of Haematospermia
The symptoms that can occasionally accompany blood in the semen may be any of the following, depending upon the cause .
  1. Painful urination
  2. Pain with ejaculation
  3. Tenderness in the testes and/or scrotum
  4. Swelling in the testes and/or scrotum
  5. Swelling or tenderness in the groin area
  6. Blood in urine
  7. Lower back pain
  8. Fever

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