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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - Treatment, Prevention


Treatment|
There's currently no cure for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and it isn't possible to stop cysts forming in the kidneys.
Medicines can control high blood pressure in autosomal recessive PKD, and antibiotics can control urinary tract infections. Eating increased amounts of nutritious food improves growth in children with autosomal recessive PKD. In some cases, growth hormones are used. In response to kidney failure, autosomal recessive PKD patients must receive dialysis or transplantation. If serious liver disease develops, some people can undergo combined liver and kidney transplantation.
If you have polycystic kidney disease and a family history of ruptured brain (intracranial) aneurysms, your doctor may recommend regular screening for intracranial aneurysms.
If an aneurysm is discovered, surgical clipping of the aneurysm to reduce the risk of bleeding may be an option, depending on its size. Nonsurgical treatment of small aneurysms may involve controlling high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol, as well as quitting smoking.
Tolvaptan is a medication can be used to slow down the growth of cysts, reducing overall kidney growth and preserving kidney function for longer. However, tolvaptan can only be used in adults who have:
Chronic kidney disease (stage two or three) at the start of treatment
Evidence of rapidly progressing kidney disease

Tolvaptan comes in tablet form and is taken twice a day as a split dose. Please consult your doctor for further advice about this medication.


Prevention|
It is not currently possible to prevent autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
If a family member is diagnosed with ADPKD, close adult relatives such as brothers and sisters may wish to be screened for the condition, even if they have not developed symptoms.
If the person diagnosed has children, they may wish their children to be screened or tested, to check if they have inherited the condition. If it can be diagnosed early, treatment can be put in place, aiming to prevent complications and slow down damage to the kidneys.
It is particularly important to identify and treat high blood pressure as early as possible. High blood pressure can make damage to the kidneys worse. High blood pressure also increases the risk of other conditions, for example, heart disease and stroke.
If you know that your family has a history of ADPKD and you want to try for a baby, it is best to speak with your doctor first.

If you have polycystic kidney disease and you're considering having children, a genetic counselor can help you assess your risk of passing the disease to your offspring.

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